Esta Inteligencia de La Rutina
Es fácil de detectar.
Las personas hablan de tenacidad y de oficio o de saber hacer.
Es fácil de reparar en una persona que tiene oficio.
Muchas personas se dan cuenta y reconocen la tenacidad en los demás.
Personas que tienen un reconocido saber hacer en su profesión.
Esta Inteligencia la tienen todos los que aprenden con el paso del tiempo.
No paramos de aprender y cada día aprendemos algo.
Las Distintas Inteligencias
Si quieres aprender algo has de practicar 10.000 horas es lo que dice en OUTLIERS Malcolm Gladwell.
Lo explica muy bien para el caso de Bill Gates y de los Beatles.
Es como aprenden los campeones del mundo de video juegos.
La Inteligencia de las Rutinas es la que se acumula en la practica ordenada de una actividad.
Malcolm Gladwell lo explica muy bien en FUERAS de SERIE o OUTLIERS.
Se aprende con esfuerzo y dedicación.
Gracias a esforzarte y dedicar horas con entusiasmo. Te haces en un experto. Y mejor si te ves arropado de grandes maestros.
También habla de crear Inteligencia Dan Colley que explica muy bien que la INTELIGENCIA se crea.
Es otro de esos libros que hay que leer.
Sí hay 4 tipos de Inteligencia de las que hoy quiero hablar
1.-INTELIGENCIA de las RUTINAS
2.-La Inteligencia de Los Impulsos
3.-La Inteligencia REFLEXIVA
4.-La Inteligencia de la vocación y de la Ilusión
An invaluable survival strategy for parents and teachers of young children is the establishment of daily and weekly routines.
To help your child learn and remember the daily routines that occur between waking up and bedtime, you can use pictures that you cut out, draw, or take with a camera. For young children, concepts of time can be difficult, and pictorial representations help them understand the order in which things happens. This is also an effective way to teach ordinal numbers (first, second, third, and so on) as well as sequencing and time concepts.
As a mother of five children and an early childhood teacher for more than 30 years, I can tell you firsthand that when the routine was disrupted without warning, chaos followed! We adults like to know what is going to happen when we plan our day; if there are changes, we like to know in advance, so we can adapt our schedules. This is important for young children, too. As adults, we sometimes take for granted that our youngsters will adjust and go along with us. But that adjustment occurs much more smoothly when they are prepared for what is to happen during their day and they have some choices in their routine.
So when you know the family's routine is going to change, sharing that information with your child is always a good idea. Young children can be resilient when given a heads-up, or what I sometimes call an "advance organizer." As a teacher, I advised parents to tell their children what would happen through the day and to prepare them for changes, such as when they were to be picked up early, they had doctors' appointments, or someone else was going to come for them after school. As another example, weekends usually involve routines that are different than weekdays for families, so it helps to prepare children by telling them exactly what will be different.
It's also a good idea to let your child help you establish the family's routines. Giving your child the opportunity to make choices and decisions within the daily routine fosters responsibility and sharing. On laundry day, for example, asking your child to help sort colors from whites not only supports the development of responsibility and teaches your child that he or she can make valuable contributions to the family, but it also helps him or her to learn sorting and classifying skills, which are important in math, reading, and science.
My first four children were very close in age, but I had my fifth child eight years after my fourth. While my youngest was growing from toddler to kindergarten age, the older children were involved in tennis and tournaments, and their after-school activities dominated our lives. This meant that I had to prepare our youngest for after-school schedule changes that did not involve going straight home to cook dinner, so my routine included preparing sandwiches on those different days. My youngest child learned how to adapt to her four siblings' schedules, and my job was to make sure that, as she grew from a toddler to a kindergartener, she knew what was going to happen every day.
I also wanted to teach my youngest daughter, as well as her older siblings, that the activities we were involved in did not preclude us from learning. As we sat waiting for a tennis match, we always had the children's books that I had put in my bag, as well as small building blocks, crayons and paper, and small toys that allowed her to be creative wherever we were. Those times that she and I spent reading books, while the others were engaged in their activities and with their friends, strengthened our personal bond. Yet she was also still part of their lives and their friends' lives.
I found that wherever our daily routines take us, we can find opportunities for teaching and learning. For example, just talking with your child about what you see in the environment will help him or her to build oral language vocabulary, which is an important pre-reading skill. You can also strengthen important foundation math skills by grouping nearby rocks into sets of five, sorting leaves into different shapes or colors, grouping sticks into tens like tally marks, and whatever else you can imagine!
My youngest is now 20, and she and my other children say that those busy times were also some of the best times they have had. Like us, many families today have complex and very full schedules before, during, and after school. Established routines make for smoother transitions and help children to prepare mentally for the day and what is to come, while providing frameworks in which creative learning can occur.
So whether you are learning a routine, or creating a routine for learning, think of it as an opportunity for spending quality time with your children -- and you will also be creating wonderful memories of early childhood.
Key links to Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF)- EYLF Principle 1. Secure, Respectful and Reciprocal Relationships- EYLF Principle 2. Partnerships- EYLF Practice 1. Holistic Approaches- EYLF Practice 2. Learning through Play- EYLF Practice 3. Intentional Teaching- EYLF Practice 5. Learning Environments- EYLF Practice 7. Continuity of Learning & Transitions- Linked to all five EYLF learning outcomes
What is a routine?
“A routine can be thought of as any procedure, process, or pattern of action that is used repeatedly to manage and facilitate the accomplishment of specific goals or tasks” - (Visible Thinking, n.d)
Importance of Routines
Uncertainty and change is innately stressful for all human beings (Cooperative Extension Service, 1989). Routines are important to everybody, but they are especially for young children as it allows children to navigate the continuous challenge of learning new things from the safe and comforting boundaries that are created by routines. Gan Discovery (2002) outlines the importance of routines/patterns as emotional regulators to decrease stress, anxiety and conflict. Gil (2010) extends on this further and outlines how routines help integrate learning with an ‘organized connection’.
Routines are important because they give children a sense of security and control over their environment. Children learn what to expect at various times in the day and as they begin to participate in these routines, they will experience a sense of control and satisfaction at being able to perform part of or all of the tasks associated with the routine.
Routines are also effective in managing negative behaviour particularly when it comes to dealing with transitions into new tasks. Routines allow children to emotionally prepare for changes that are to come. For example, a child will know that certain things happen as he gets ready for bed and as he progresses through the routine, he will also know what is expected of him when the task is completed.
Some of the important skills children learn through routines include: self control, positive behaviour and social skills. Routines can even help strengthen the relationship between you and your child as power struggles are significantly reduced (Zero to Three, n.d.).
Learning Through Routines
Routines provide a two pronged approach to fostering learning:
1.they provide learning within the routine itself and the specific tasks associated with the routine;
2.through the process of generalization (i.e., establishing a frame of reference that can be used to learn other skills and concepts (Gil, 2010).
Routines provide a context for learning to take place. Routines help children learn how their world is organized and what they need to do in order to interact successfully in that world (Sussmen, 2011). For example, after they wake up they need to get dressed and have breakfast before getting ready to go to daycare. At daycare, they need to hang up their jacket, say good morning to the teacher and then they will have time for some free play for a while before they may later sit down together as a group. Routines will give each child a sense of continuity throughout the day as well as letting them know what to expect next. Within routines children also learn methods associated with math and sequencing: used to follow an ordered sequence of activities, determine relationships between elements, count, and make simple calculations
Routines not only help children learn about their day, they can also help develop motor skills as they begin to practice the tasks involved with the routine. A child’s confidence level will also begin to increase as they become more and more successful at performing those tasks. Children may initially not be able to get dressed by themselves but they will slowly develop the skills necessary and will soon be able to accomplish the task on their own.
Getting parents involved not only in passing on key routines from home, but also sharing in key routines for your early childhood service, will strengthen the security and comfort children take from routines.
Routines can also provide opportunities for little children to slowly increase their responsibility and care of self and it is important that families and educators work patiently together to strengthen children’s confidence to do this.
Social skills can also be taught through routines such as welcoming, saying goodbye, turn taking and group times. Gill (2010) refer to this as ‘tactile and/ or visual modeling’: used when learning a new action in the routine or repeating an action that has not yet been mastered. By teaching children what behaviours are appropriate and at what times, it can teach them how to start conversations and interact with other people (Sussmen, 2011). Routines can give educators and parents a chance to practice conversations with their child as well as providing an opportunity for the child to initiate conversation. Children can inform educators and parents when it’s time for a routine to take place as well as what comes next in the routine.
Routines also teach children specific skills involved in the routine as well as skills that can be used in other circumstances (Rodriguez-Gil, 2010). For example, a routine that is learned in a pre-school will be brought home and practiced there. If the expectation at the pre-school is that children arrive and immediately put their school bag away, this routine can be imported into the family home so that children will put their school bag away when they get home as well.
Routines can also have a powerful effect on language learning because of all the opportunities they provide excellent prompts for discussion. As educators and parents progress through the various daily routines, they can name the items that are being used in the routine, they can discuss each action as it is being done and they can discuss what comes next. Their child will begin to understand the vocabulary that is associated with the routine. Gill (2010) refers to this as ‘adapted communication’: used by the child and the communication partner as needed in the routine to anticipate, to name, to make choices and to have a conversation about actions, people, objects, places, physical sensations and emotions.
Making Routines effective
In order for routines to be a practical source for learning you need to make sure that you have enough time to take each task within the routine slowly and you need to be sure that you discuss each individual task with your child (Linden, 2000). You need to try and do the same thing the same way each time you do a routine and you should also try to use the same language to help reinforce language learning. Take time out to write your routines down and discuss them which your colleagues, children and their families (Linden 2000).
You shouldn’t think of routines as tasks that need to be performed but instead as opportunities to interact in a meaningful way with your child. By talking, touching and interacting in other ways with your child, you can actually use daily routines to help develop and strengthen the bond with your child as well as providing the opportunity to learn a number of different skills.
Think of ways you can continue or leverage learning from a routine. Here are some examples:
-implement written literacy elements into a routine, by including words to label/describe routines, children can use the predictive understanding of their routines to learn new words;
-use routine and maintenance times as opportunities to explore conversation and interaction with children such as during nappy change and meal times.
-discuss routines with children and ask them how their routines could be changed, extended or improved;
-look for opportunities to extend or challenge children in the routine, such as ways to take on more responsibility or complete more difficult tasks.
This article has been written by Raise Learning, providers of LIFT (Learning Involving Families & Teachers - an online programming and documentation tool) and other early childhood management tools. If you would like to know more about Raise Learning or LIFT please visit our home page.
In the type of temporary inhibition of action which signifies thinking, or in which reflection arises, we have presented in the experience of the individual, tentatively and in advance and for his selection among them, the different possibilities or alternatives of future action open to him within the given social situa-
(91) -tion -- the different or alternative ways of completing the given social act wherein he is implicated, or which he has already initiated. Reflection or reflective behavior arises only under the conditions of self-consciousness, and makes possible the purposive control and organization by the individual organism of its conduct with reference to its social and physical environment, i.e., with reference to the various social and physical situations in which it becomes involved and to which it reacts. The organization of the self is simply the organization, by the individual organism, of the set of attitudes toward its social environment-and toward itself from the standpoint of that environment, or as a functioning element in the process of social experience and behavior constituting that environment-which it is able to take. It is essential that such reflective intelligence be dealt with from the point of view of social behaviorism.
I said a moment ago that there is something involved in our statement of the meaning of an object which is more than the mere response, however complex that may be. We may respond to a musical phrase and there may be nothing in the experience beyond the response; we may not be able to say why we respond or what it is we respond to. Our attitude may simply be that we like some music and do not like other music. Most of our recognitions are of this sort. We pick out the book we want but could not say what the character of the book is. We probably could give a more detailed account of the countenance of a man we meet for the first time than of our most intimate friends. With our friends we are ready to start our conversation the moment they are there; we do not have to make sure who they are. But if we try to pick out a man who has been described to us we narrowly examine the person to make sure he answers to the account that is given to us. With a person with whom we are familiar we carry on our conversation without thinking of these things. Most of our processes of recognition do not involve this identification of the characters which enable us to identify the objects. We may have to describe a person and we find we cannot do it-we know him too well. We may have to pick those
(92) details out, and then if we are taking a critical attitude we have to find out what it is in the object that calls out this complex response. When we are doing that we are getting a statement of what the nature of the object is, or if you like, its meaning. We have to indicate to ourselves what it is that calls out this particular response. We recognize a person, say, because of the character of his physique. If one should come into the room greatly changed by a long attack of sickness, or by exposure to the tropical sun, one's friends would not be able to recognize him immediately. There are certain elements which enable us to recognize a friend. We may have to pick out the characters which make recognition successful, to indicate those characters to somebody or to ourselves. We may have to determine what the stimuli are that call out a response of this complex character. That is often a very difficult thing to do, as is evidenced by musical criticism. A whole audience may be swept away by a composition and perhaps not a person there will be able to state what it is in the production that calls out this particular response, or to tell what the various reactions are in these individuals. It is an unusual gift which can analyze that sort of an object and pick out what the stimulus is for so complex an action.
What I want to call attention to is the process by which there is an indication of those characters which do call out the response. Animals of a type lower than man respond to certain characters with a nicety that is beyond human capacity, such as odor in the case of a dog. But it would be beyond the capacity of a dog to indicate to another dog what the odor was. Another dog could not be sent out by the first dog to pick out this odor. A man may tell how to identify another man. He can indicate what the characters are that will bring about a certain response. That ability absolutely distinguishes the intelligence of such a reflective being as man from that of the lower animals, however intelligent they may be. We generally say that man is a rational animal and lower animals are not. What I wanted to show, at least in terms of behavioristic psychology, is that what we have in mind in this distinction is the indication of those
(93) characters which lead to the sort of response which we give to an object. Pointing out the characters which lead to the response is precisely that which distinguishes a detective office that sends out a man, from a bloodhound which runs down a man. Here are two types of intelligence, each one specialized; the detective could not do what the bloodhound does and the bloodhound could not do what the detective does. Now, the intelligence of the detective over against the intelligence of the bloodhound lies in this capacity to indicate what the particular characters are which will call out his response of taking the man .
Such would be a behaviorist's account of what is involved in reason. When you are reasoning you are indicating to yourself the characters that call out certain responses-and that is all you are doing. If you have the angle and a side you can determine the area of a triangle; given certain characters there are certain responses indicated. There are other processes, not exactly rational, out of which you can build up new responses from old ones. You may pick out responses which are there in other reactions and put them together. A book of directions may provide a set of stimuli which lead to a certain set of responses, and you pick them out of your other complex responses, perhaps as they have not been picked out before. When you write on a typewriter you may be instructed as to the way in which to use it. You can build up a fairly good technique to start with, but even that is a process which still involves the indication of the stimuli to call out the various responses. You unite stimuli which have not been united in the past, and then these stimuli take with them the compound responses. It may be a crude response at first, and must be freed from the responses had in the past. The way in which you react toward the doubling of letters when you write is different from the way you react in writing the
(94) letters on a typewriter. You make mistakes because the responses you utilize have been different, have been connected with a whole set of other responses. A drawing teacher will sometimes have pupils draw with the left hand rather than the right, because the habits of the right hand are very difficult to get rid of. This is what you are doing when you act in a rational fashion: you are indicating to yourself what the stimuli are that will call out a complex response, and by the order of the stimuli you are determining what the whole of the response will be. Now, to be able to indicate those stimuli to other persons or to yourself is what we call rational conduct as distinct from the unreasoning intelligence of the lower animals, and from a good deal of our own conduct.
Man is distinguished by that power of analysis of the field of stimulation which enables him to pick out one stimulus rather than another and so to hold on to the response that belongs to that stimulus, picking it out from others, and recombining it with others. You cannot get a lock to work. You notice certain elements, each of which brings out a certain sort of response; and what you are doing is holding on to these processes of response by giving attention to the stimuli. Man can combine not only the responses already there, which is the thing an animal lower than man can do, but the human individual can get into his activities and break them up, giving attention to specific elements, holding the responses that answer to these particular stimuli, and then combining them to build up another act. That is what we mean by learning or by teaching a person to do a thing. You indicate to him certain specific phases or characters of the object which call out certain sorts of responses. We state that generally by saying consciousness accompanies only the sensory process and not the motor process. We can directly control the sensory but not the motor processes; we can give our attention to a particular element in the field and by giving such attention and so holding on to the stimulus we can get control of the response. That is the way we get control of our action;
(95) we do not directly control our response through the motor paths themselves.
There is no capacity in the lower forms to give attention to some analyzed element in the field of stimulation which would enable them to control the response. But one can say to a person "Look at this, just see this thing" and he can fasten his attention on the specific object. He can direct attention and so isolate the particular response that answers to it. That is the way in which we break up our complex activities and thereby make learning possible. What takes place is an analysis of the process by giving attention to the specific stimuli that call out a particular act, and this analysis makes possible a reconstruction of the act. An animal makes combinations, as we say, only by trial and error, and the combination that is successful simply maintains itself.
The gesture as worked out in the conduct of the human group serves definitely to indicate just these elements and thus to bring them within the field of voluntary attention. There is, of course, a fundamental likeness between voluntary attention and involuntary attention. A bright light, a peculiar odor, may be something which takes complete control of the organism and in so far inhibits other activity. A voluntary action, however, is dependent upon the indication of a certain character, pointing it out, holding on to it, and so holding on to the response that belongs to it. That sort of an analysis is essential to what we call human intelligence, and it is made possible by language.
The psychology of attention ousted the psychology of association. An indefinite number of associations were found which lie in our experience with reference to anything that comes before us, but associational psychology never explained why one association rather than another was the dominant one. It laid down rules that if a certain association had been intense, recent, and frequent it would be dominant, but often there are in fact situations in which what seems to be the weakest element in the situation occupies the mind. It was not until the psychologist took up the analysis of attention that he was able to deal with
(96) such situations, and to realize that voluntary attention is dependent upon indication of some character in the field of stimulation. Such indication makes possible the isolation and recombination of responses.
In the case of the vocal gesture there is a tendency to call out the response in one form that is called out in the other, so that the child plays the part of parent, of teacher, or preacher. The gesture under those conditions calls out certain responses in the individual which it calls out in the other person, and carrying it out in the individual isolates that particular character of the stimulus. The response of the other is there in the individual isolating the stimulus. If one calls out quickly to a person in danger, he himself is in the attitude of jumping away, though the act is not performed. He is not in danger, but he has those particular elements of the response in himself, and we speak of them as meanings. Stated in terms of the central nervous system, this means that he has stirred up its upper tracts which would lead to the actual jumping away. A person picks out the different responses involved in escape when he enters the theater and notices the signs on the program cautioning him to choose the nearest exit in case of fire. He has all the different responses, so to speak, listed before him, and he prepares what he is going to do by picking out the different elements and putting them together in the way required. The efficiency engineer comes in to pick out this, that, or the other thing, and chooses the order in which they should be carried out. One is doing the same himself in so far as he is self-conscious. Where we have to determine what will be the order of a set of responses, we are putting them together in a certain fashion, and we can do this because we can indicate the order of the stimuli which are going to act upon us. That is what is involved in the human intelligence as distinguished from the intelligence type of the lower forms. We cannot tell an elephant that he is to take hold of the other elephant's tail; the stimulus will not indicate the same thing to the elephant as to ourselves. We can create a situation which is a stimulus to the elephant but we cannot get the
(97) elephant to indicate to itself what this stimulus is so that he has the response to it in his own system.
The gesture provides a process by means of which one does arouse in himself the reaction that might be aroused in another, and this is not a part of his immediate reaction in so far as his immediate physical environment is concerned. When we tell a person to do something the response we have is not the doing of the actual thing, but the beginning of it. Communication gives to us those elements of response which can be held in the mental field. We do not carry them out, but they are there constituting the meanings of these objects which we indicate. Language is a process of indicating certain stimuli and changing the response to them in the system of behavior. Language as a social process has made it possible for us to pick out responses and hold them in the organism of the individual, so that they are there in relation to that which we indicate. The actual gesture is, within limits, arbitrary. Whether one points with his finger, or points with the glance of the eye, or motion of the head, or the attitude of the body, or by means of a vocal gesture in one language or another, is indifferent, provided it does call out the response that belongs to that thing which is indicated. That is the essential part of language. The gesture must be one that calls out the response in the individual, or tends to call out the response in the individual, which its utilization will bring out in another's response. Such is the material with which the mind works. However slight, there must be some sort of gesture. To have the response isolated without an indication of a stimulus is almost a contradiction in terms. I have been trying to point out what this process of communication does in the way of providing us with the material that exists in our mind. It does this by furnishing those gestures which in affecting us as they affect others call out the attitude which the other takes, and that we take in so far as we assume his r�le. We get the attitude, the meaning, within the field of our own control, and that control consists in combining all these various possible responses to furnish the newly constructed act demanded by the problem. In
(98) such a way we can state rational conduct in terms of a behavioristic psychology.
I wish to add one further factor to our account: the relation of the temporal character of the nervous system to foresight and choice .
The central nervous system makes possible the implicit initiation of a number of possible alternative responses with reference to any given object or objects for the completion of any already initiated act, in advance of the actual completion of that act; and thus makes possible the exercise of intelligent or reflective choice in the acceptance of that one among these possible alternative responses which is to be carried into overt effect.
Human intelligence, by means of the physiological mechanism of the human central nervous system, deliberately selects one from among the several alternative responses which are possible in the given problematic environmental situation; and if the given response which it selects is complex-i.e., is a set or chain or group or succession of simple responses-it can organize this set or chain of simple responses in such a way as to make possible the most adequate and harmonious solution by the individual of the given environmental problem.
It is the entrance of the alternative possibilities of future response into the determination of present conduct in any given environmental situation, and their operation, through the mechanism of the central nervous system, as part of the factors or conditions determining present behavior, which decisively contrasts intelligent conduct or behavior with reflex, instinctive, and habitual conduct or behavior--delayed reaction with immediate reaction. That which takes place in present organic behavior is always in some sense an emergent from the past, and
(99) never could have been precisely predicted in advance-never could have been predicted on the basis of a knowledge, however complete, of the past, and of the conditions in the past which are relevant to its emergence; and in the case of organic behavior which is intelligently controlled, this element of spontaneity is especially prominent by virtue of the present influence exercised over such behavior by the possible future results or consequences which it may have. Our ideas of or about future conduct are our tendencies to act in several alternative ways in the presence of a given environmental situation-tendencies or attitudes which can appear, or be implicitly aroused, in the structure of the central nervous system in advance of the overt response or reaction to that situation, and which thus can enter as determining factors into the control or selection of this overt response. Ideas, as distinct from acts, or as failing to issue in overt behavior, are simply what we do not do; they are possibilities of overt responses which we test out implicitly in the central nervous system and then reject in favor of those which we do in fact act upon or carry into effect. The process of intelligent conduct is essentially a process of selection from among various alternatives; Intelligence is largely a matter of selectivity.
Delayed reaction is necessary to intelligent conduct. The organization, implicit testing, and final selection by the individual of his overt responses or reactions to the social situations which confront him and which present him with problems of adjustment, would be impossible if his overt responses or reactions could not in such situations be delayed until this process of organizing, implicitly testing, and finally selecting is carried out; that is, would be impossible if some overt response or other to the given environmental stimuli had to be immediate. Without delayed reaction, or except in terms of it, no conscious or intelligent control over behavior could be exercised; for it is through this process of selective reaction-which can be selective only because it is delayed-that intelligence operates in the determination of behavior. Indeed, it is this process which constitutes intelligence. The central nervous system provides not
(100) only the necessary physiological mechanism for this process, but also the necessary physiological condition of delayed reaction which this process presupposes. Intelligence is essentially the ability to solve the problems of present behavior in terms of its possible future consequences as implicated on the basis of past experience-the ability, that is, to solve the problems of present behavior in the light of, or by reference to, both the past and the future; it involves both memory and foresight. And the process of exercising intelligence is the process of delaying, organizing, and selecting a response or reaction to the stimuli of the given environmental situation. The process is made possible by the mechanism of the central nervous system, which permits the individual's taking of the attitude of the other toward himself, and thus becoming an object to himself. This is the most effective means of adjustment to the social environment, and indeed to the environment in general, that the individual has at his disposal.
An attitude of any sort represents the beginning, or potential initiation, of some composite act or other, a social act in which, along with other individuals, the individual taking the given attitude is involved or implicated. The traditional supposition has been that the purposive element in behavior must ultimately be an idea, a conscious motive, and hence must imply or depend upon the presence of a mind. But the study of the nature of the central nervous system shows that in the form of physiological attitudes (expressed in specific physiological sets) different possible completions to the given act are there in advance of its actual completion, and that through them the earlier parts of the given act are affected or influenced (in present conduct) by its later phases; so that the purposive element in behavior has a physiological seat, a behavioristic basis, and is not fundamentally nor necessarily conscious or psychical.
Pep Marí: "Per ser un bon entrenador cal que la psicologia t'apassioni"
Àlex López Puig
EsportsEl cap del Departament de Psicologia esportiva del Centre d'Alt Rendiment de Sant Cugat ha ofert una interessant sessió formativa al Club Handbol Sant Cugat, sobre les diferents necessitats psicològiques que té un entrenador
Pep Marí, cap del Departament de Psicologia esportiva del Centre d'Alt Rendiment (CAR) de Sant Cugat, ha ofert aquest dimecres, 30 de gener, una brillant xerrada formativa al Club Handbol Sant Cugat. Durant dues hores, Marí ha repassat les diferents necessitats psicològiques que té un entrenador. Marí ha estat molt clar i ha assegurat que "si voleu ser un bons entrenadors, us ha d'apassionar la psicologia". Aquest prestigiós psicòleg esportiu, amb prop de 25 anys d'experiència en la matèria, ha destacat la importància de la psicologia en el món de l'esport. "Com més formació de psicologia tingueu -dirigint-se als entrenadors-, menys problemes tindran els vostres jugadors", ha sentenciat. El cap del Departament de Psicologia esportiva del CAR de Sant Cugat també ha destacat que els entrenadors "són gestors de persones i han de saber treure el màxim rendiment possible d'un grup de persones".
Quatre necessitats psicològiques La xerrada de Pep Marí s'ha basat en l'explicació de quines són les quatre necessitats psicològiques d'un entrenador. Són l'autocontrol emocional (comportar-se de forma adequada); la direcció grupal (els entrenadors han de buscar la credibilitat dels seus jugadors i del seu equip de treball i crear un bon clima de treball que afavoreixi el rendiment); la gestió de l'entornde l'equip (l'objectiu és evitar que l'entorn interfereixi), i la transmissió de coneixements (tècnics i tàctics) i valors.
La sessió formativa ha comptat amb una quarantena d'assistents, entre jugadors i jugadores, entrenadors i monitors, directius i pares i mares del Club Handbol Sant Cugat, que han evidenciat el seu interès per l'aplicació de la psicologia en el món de l'esport. Aquesta jornada de formació s'ha celebrat a l'Auditori de la Casa de Cultura.
Pep Marí presenta el seu segon llibre el 26 de febrer Pep Marí presentarà el seu segon llibre el dimarts 26 de febrer, a partir de les 19 hores, a la Casa del Llibre de Barcelona. La felicidad no es el objetivo, de Plataforma Editorial, és el segon llibre que escriu Marí i ja es podrà adquirir a les llibreries als voltants del 15 de febrer. El seu primer llibre, Aprender de los campeones, va ser un èxit, tant pel seu contingut com per les ventes.
Plena atención en el mirar, observar, reflexionar… y concluir… o NO CONCLUIR. Ese es el proceso de lo que yo denomino Inteligencia Reflexiva.Si desde principios del siglo pasado se había inventado la medición de lo quese denominó Cociente Intelectual (CI) y a finales de dicho siglo apareció loque se llamó Inteligencia Emocional (IE), ¿por qué no añadir este otrotipo de inteligencia que tanto me ha ayudado en mi vida? De entre los franceses, surgió un tal Alfred Binet que a principios del siglo pasado perfiló un test que aproximaría a ladetección precoz del éxito o fracaso en los estudios académicos. Se trataría deun análisis predictor. Según su proceso,este cociente se determinaría al resolver la siguiente ecuación:
Esto llevaría a un número que nos hablaría delas posibilidades de tener éxito o no en los estudios; donde el tramo entre 85y los 115 estaría en valores normales y cualquier otro número nos hablaría devalores marginales. Durante todo el siglo pasado se vinieron estudiando otrostipos de inteligencia, como la creativa, la práctica, la intuitiva… inclusollegó a describirse lo que se vino en llamar Inteligencia Múltiple, que vendríaa ser como una especie de media de distintos tipos de inteligencia. Pero fue enla última década del siglo XX cuando apareció la denominada InteligenciaEmocional, cuya descripción tuvo mucho éxito. El ansia en acotar (cuantificar)este tipo de inteligencias, llevó a que se perfeccionaran distintos tipos detest, que por supuesto condujeron a la investigación y profundización enaquello que se ha venido en llamar Inteligencia. Puedes ver algunos ejemplos dedistintos test en la página dePsicología Online. Hay un buen montón de definiciones de lo que llamamosinteligencia,pero daremos la nuestra (la de ir por casa) y puede que así nos entendamosmejor. A mi entender, la inteligencia no es más que un conjunto de funciones de las que es capaz un cerebro. Aquí podremos incluir hasta lo quedenominaremos Cerebro Colectivo o Inteligencia Colectiva que trataremos enmejor ocasión. Según esta definición, que es muy amplia y que incluso abarca a todos los animales, Inteligencia vendría a ser algo así como la habilidad delcerebro y su correspondiente cuantificación con un grado de valor. Las dotes deseducción, por ejemplo, podrían ser graduadas en lo que denominaríamos Inteligencia Seductora (IS). Por otra parte, la Inteligencia Emocional (IE)podría valorar este aspecto de las emociones (tanto en seres humanos como en animales, recuerda), que aunque parezca que nada tenga que ver con el cerebro,está totalmente vinculado si tenemos en cuenta que es este órgano quien lo rigetodo en un cuerpo. Siguiendo este hilo y exagerando un poco, podría llegarse ahablar de una Inteligencia Endocrina (IEn), basado en la capacidad deregulación de ese cerebro de todo el sistema de fabricación de hormonas; nosólo por la regulación automática de las segregaciones, sino también por losajustes (también automáticos) de carencias y deficiencias en el cuerpo que dirige. Pero vamos a centrarnos en la “nuestra”, la que denominamosInteligencia Reflexiva. De la misma manera que otras formas de inteligenciavaloran distintos tipos de facultades, esta inteligencia valoraría la capacidadde reflexión del Ser Humano en abstracto, y de un cerebro en concreto. Pues deacuerdo con este segundo hilo, podríamos llegar a pensar que los distintostipos de inteligencias, no han “sido logrados” por el individuo, y por lo tantono tienen más mérito que el de una casualidad combinada por la naturaleza. Enotras palabras, que más mérito tiene quien ante una Inteligencia Matemática(IM) (o de cálculo), de tipo medio bajo, con su esfuerzo y trabajo consiga ungrado más elevado del que la naturaleza le ha dotado; pero esto sería otracuestión a tener en cuenta en las cualificaciones. La plena atención en el proceso descrito al inicio del “mirar,observar, reflexionar…” nos habla de la virtud de saber mirar y de dotes deobservación y reflexión. Este proceso que puede llevar a una “conclusión” o no,deposita un poso en la mente (o en el subconsciente) que de una uotra forma estará latente y servirá para utilizarlo posteriormente en cualquiernueva experiencia y nos será de referencia, de ahí su importancia. Como hemosdicho no es necesaria la conclusión, el mismo proceso ya resume lo que tieneque resumir en el subconsciente. La Inteligencia Reflexiva es una especie de InteligenciaMúltiple Específica orientada a un objeto sustancial: La formación de lapersonalidad. El sustrato que deja este tipo de inteligencia sedeposita en la parte más profunda e importante del Ser Humano. Unos dirán quese trata del alma, yo simplemente diré que se trata de la persona; la IR configuralo más íntimo e importante del Ser Humano. No me preguntes cómo se podría medir este tipo deinteligencia, que no lo sé; eso lo dejo para los sesudos e inteligentesestudiosos y expertos en el tema. Nosotros, bastante hemos hecho en reflexionarsobre ello unos minutos. Espero que nos haya sido útil. Como siempre, al final dos consideraciones: Este artículo nopretende tener contenido científico; se debe entender como el producto de unasimple reflexión/propuesta, por lo que hay que leerlo con todas las reservas.Se trata de una opinión que se debería leer con espíritu crítico. Y en segundolugar, seguro que no hay nada nuevo en él, que alguien tiene que haberlo estudiado,pero yo no lo he visto; quizás los expertos y profesionales hayan leído oexperimentado sobre esto en alguna ocasión. Hoy le vamos a dar caña a la superficialidad mientrasalabamos la introspección.
La Inteligencia Reflexiva. ¿Un “nuevo” tipo de inteligencia?
Plena atención en el mirar, observar, reflexionar… y concluir… o NO CONCLUIR.
Ese es el proceso de lo que yo denomino Inteligencia Reflexiva. Si desde principios del siglo pasado se había inventado la medición de lo que se denominó Cociente Intelectual (CI) y a finales de dicho siglo apareció lo que se llamó Inteligencia Emocional (IE), ¿por qué no añadir este otro tipo de inteligencia que tanto me ha ayudado en mi vida?
De entre los franceses, surgió un tal Alfred Binet que a principios del siglo pasado perfiló un test que aproximaría a la detección precoz del éxito o fracaso en los estudios académicos. Se trataría de un análisis predictor. Según su proceso, este cociente se determinaría al resolver la siguiente ecuación:
Esto llevaría a un número que nos hablaría de las posibilidades de tener éxito o no en los estudios; donde el tramo entre 85 y los 115 estaría en valores normales y cualquier otro número nos hablaría de valores marginales.
Durante todo el siglo pasado se vinieron estudiando otros tipos de inteligencia, como la creativa, la práctica, la intuitiva… incluso llegó a describirse lo que se vino en llamar Inteligencia Múltiple, que vendría a ser como una especie de media de distintos tipos de inteligencia. Pero fue en la última década del siglo XX cuando apareció la denominada Inteligencia Emocional, cuya descripción tuvo mucho éxito. El ansia en acotar (cuantificar) este tipo de inteligencias, llevó a que se perfeccionaran distintos tipos de test, que por supuesto condujeron a la investigación y profundización en aquello que se ha venido en llamar Inteligencia. Puedes ver algunos ejemplos de distintos test en la página de Psicología Online.
Hay un buen montón de definiciones de lo que llamamos inteligencia, pero daremos la nuestra (la de ir por casa) y puede que así nos entendamos mejor. A mi entender,la inteligencia no es más que un conjunto de funciones de las que es capaz un cerebro. Aquí podremos incluir hasta lo que denominaremos Cerebro Colectivo o Inteligencia Colectiva que trataremos en mejor ocasión. Según esta definición, que es muy amplia y que incluso abarca a todos los animales, Inteligencia vendría a ser algo así como la habilidad del cerebro y su correspondiente cuantificación con un grado de valor. Las dotes de seducción, por ejemplo, podrían ser graduadas en lo que denominaríamos Inteligencia Seductora (IS). Por otra parte, la Inteligencia Emocional (IE) podría valorar este aspecto de las emociones (tanto en seres humanos como en animales, recuerda), que aunque parezca que nada tenga que ver con el cerebro, está totalmente vinculado si tenemos en cuenta que es este órgano quien lo rige todo en un cuerpo. Siguiendo este hilo y exagerando un poco, podría llegarse a hablar de una Inteligencia Endocrina (IEn), basado en la capacidad de regulación de ese cerebro de todo el sistema de fabricación de hormonas; no sólo por la regulación automática de las segregaciones, sino también por los ajustes (también automáticos) de carencias y deficiencias en el cuerpo que dirige.
Pero vamos a centrarnos en la “nuestra”, la que denominamos Inteligencia Reflexiva. De la misma manera que otras formas de inteligencia valoran distintos tipos de facultades, esta inteligencia valoraría la capacidad de reflexión del Ser Humano en abstracto, y de un cerebro en concreto. Pues de acuerdo con este segundo hilo, podríamos llegar a pensar que los distintos tipos de inteligencias, no han “sido logrados” por el individuo, y por lo tanto no tienen más mérito que el de una casualidad combinada por la naturaleza. En otras palabras, que más mérito tiene quien ante una Inteligencia Matemática (IM) (o de cálculo), de tipo medio bajo, con su esfuerzo y trabajo consiga un grado más elevado del que la naturaleza le ha dotado; pero esto sería otra cuestión a tener en cuenta en las cualificaciones.
La plena atención en el proceso descrito al inicio del “mirar, observar, reflexionar…” nos habla de la virtud de saber mirar y de dotes de observación y reflexión. Este proceso que puede llevar a una “conclusión” o no, deposita un poso en la mente (o en el subconsciente) que de una u otra forma estará latente y servirá para utilizarlo posteriormente en cualquier nueva experiencia y nos será de referencia, de ahí su importancia. Como hemos dicho no es necesaria la conclusión, el mismo proceso ya resume lo que tiene que resumir en el subconsciente. La Inteligencia Reflexiva es una especie de Inteligencia Múltiple Específica orientada a un objeto sustancial: La formación de la personalidad. El sustrato que deja este tipo de inteligencia se deposita en la parte más profunda e importante del Ser Humano. Unos dirán que se trata del alma, yo simplemente diré que se trata de la persona; la IR configura lo más íntimo e importante del Ser Humano.
No me preguntes cómo se podría medir este tipo de inteligencia, que no lo sé; eso lo dejo para los sesudos e inteligentes estudiosos y expertos en el tema. Nosotros, bastante hemos hecho en reflexionar sobre ello unos minutos. Espero que nos haya sido útil.
Como siempre, al final dos consideraciones: Este artículo no pretende tener contenido científico; se debe entender como el producto de una simple reflexión/propuesta, por lo que hay que leerlo con todas las reservas. Se trata de una opinión que se debería leer con espíritu crítico. Y en segundo lugar, seguro que no hay nada nuevo en él, que alguien tiene que haberlo estudiado, pero yo no lo he visto; quizás los expertos y profesionales hayan leído o experimentado sobre esto en alguna ocasión.
Hoy le vamos a dar caña a la superficialidad mientras alabamos la introspección.